Thursday, April 25, 2013

Reading, Writing, and Spelling Learning Disabilities

--Learning disabilities are thought to be caused by disruptions in the brain. This is can be due to many factors. For example, if the disruption occurs earlier in the pregnancy, the fetus can die or the infant is born with many different disabilities and are more at risk for developmental delays. If the disruption occurs later, when the cells are becoming specialized and moving into place, it can casue errors in the cell makeup, location, or connections. Some experts believe that these errors can later lead to a learning disability.

2 main types of written, reading and spelling learning disabilities
  • Dyslexia
  • Dysgraphia


Dyslexia is a reading disorder that is caused by a neurological disorder that causes the brain to process information differently than others. Problems with dyslexia vary. This can be mild to severe. Some people have trouble with reading, writing and spelling. As well as telling left from right on the page.   Dyslexia may be a reading disorder but it also affects how people express themselves. For example, people with dyslexia have a hard time organizing their thoughts, they may be misunderstood a lot of the time.

There are two main learning disabilities in reading. They are basic reading problems and reading comprehension. Basic reading problems consist of problems with decoding sounds, letters and words. Reading comprehension is a problem with understanding the meaning of words, sentences and phrases.

Here is a video further explaining dyslexia and the brain

Facilitative activites for Dyslexia that parents can do
--EARLY exposure to oral reading, writing and drawing
--Practice with print, recognition skills, letters and sounds
--Allow for more time to complete tasks at home and in school
--Use books on tape and multi-sensory instruction for all around learning
--Support for your child is key. This can be extremely frustrating and it takes an emotional toll.


Dysgraphia is writing deficit. This can manifest in the physical act of writing or the mental activity it takes to get a thought from your brain to the paper. Dysgraphia is thought to be casued by visual-spatial and language processing deficits.
Chilren with a basic writing disorder have trouble with the physical act of writing letters and words. While, children with expressive writing disorders have a problem with organizing thoughts onto paper.

This is an example of a visual-spatial deficit

Facilitative activites for Dysgraphia that parents can do
--Try different pens and pencils that are comfortable for the child
--Practice writing letters and numbers in the air with big arm movements for motor memory
--Use multisensory learning techniques for shapes, letters and numbers
--Allow more time for writing assignments
--Complete tasks in smaller steps rather than all at once


1 comment:

  1. Nice article! thanks for this material has been a great help, I recommend this app has really been a great tool for my learning and pronunciation